Antenna Diversity in wireless communication

To improve reliability at receiver, multiple copies of a packet are transmitted over several antennas. If one of the packet gets corrupted at receiver, other packets are used to decode the useful data.
Different diversity coding's are listed below
Space diversity
Transmit/Receive diversity
Pattern diversity
Polarization diversity

Space diversity -

Space diversity is designed for multi-antennas which are identical but placed at different co-ordinates. With this technique co-channel interference can be significantly reduced. The separation distance between the antennas are calculated based on expected channel conditions. An example of spatial diversity is Sectorization

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Transmit or Receive diversity -
This is another multiple antenna technique employing multiple antennas at transmit and receive. This scheme employs the combination of antennas to achieve combinations of space-time diversities,or delay diversity or frequency diversity.

Space Time diversity coding (STC) -
This technique involves transmitting a given payload from different antennas (space diversity) and also at different times (time diversity).

Delay Diversity -
Another form of STC, where a payload is transmitted with mathematically calculated delays from multiple antennas.

Frequency Diversity -
In Frequency diversity a given payload is transmitted over different frequencies.

Pattern Diversity -

Pattern diversity consists of two or more antennas separated with a small distance configured to transmit different radiation patterns. When combined it can achieve improved gain performances.

Polarization diversity -

This technique deploys the phenomenon of Polarization among antennas. Polarization is not good for signal quality and a 90 degree polarized signal reduces the signal strength by 34 dB. In order to offset the effects of polarization a pairing of two complementary antennas are implemented to offset the distortions on signal quality.


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