Application Layer in Software.

What is an Application in terms of software? Application is nothing but a software program designed to perform a set of tasks. Some of the most common application software's are Open Office, accounting/tax software, media players.
Most common classification of application software’s:
Classification by operating system : Microsoft, Apple Mac.
Classification by network : Installed vs. Cloud based. 
Classification by mobility : Like Android Apps.
So what’s Application Layer?
This is the top-most layer of TCP/IP protocol stack. Application Layer focuses more on interfacing with applications through various API’s, provide access to printers, file sharing, file re-naming to readable formats, network utilities and acquiring operating system environments.

OS - Operating system

Its a sub-system of a computing device that is primarily responsible for resource management and security. Its also an interface between users and hardware.
Tip to memorize :- There are several operating systems, some are open-source and others are proprietary.

RAM - Random Access Memory

From the name we can easily interpret that its a kind of memory from which data can be accessed randomly. Response time of RAM is directly related to the speed with which instructions/results can be loaded/executed by mobile OS. In other words, active and most recently used files and programs are stored in this memory.
Tip to memorize :- This memory is a temporary storage and usually gets erased at power down.

Screen resolution in pixels

In simple term’s the cell phone screen can be looked as below

screen resolution in pixels.

Where intersection of rows and columns are called pixels. Current resolution 15 x 6.

Tip to memorize :- More pixels you have the better resolution you get and better quality of screen response. iphone5 home button issue

LTE - 4G Wireless Technology

Digital fundamentals.

Interview Questions.

Inside Smart Phone/Tablet hardware.

A smart phone/tablet is an advanced hardware platform that can perform millions of high performance mathematical calculations in short period of time.

screen resolution in pixels.


Other must requirements includes compact size, low power, high data rates (ex. web surfing) etc.

Cell Phone/Tablet in basic hardware blocks shown below.

Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor

CPU - is the portion of the phone which issues all the instructions to the system.

CPU speed is measured in MHz.
'MHz' is a term which is abbreviation of Mega Hertz.
Mega = 1 000 000
Hertz = cycles per second

Its a measure of the rate at which the processor can do
calculations. In other words, the frequency at which master
clock is running.

Tip to memorize :- Always look for higher 'MHz' number. Some of the latest Processors can run up 1 GHz .
Where, 1GHz = 1000 MHz


Verilog Tutorial.

LTE Tutorial.

Memory Tutorial.

Storage Memory classification - SD (Secure Digital) and SDHC (SD High Capacity)

This storage memory is a non-volatile memory widely used in electronics for storing content created or downloaded on a fly. The information stored in this memory is not lost when the source of power is turned off. Some of the associated terms with SD memory is discussed below.

What is Memory capacity ?
Amount of data in binary or digital form which can be stored inside the memory constitutes memory capacity. Digital data is always one of the following state 0 or 1.

How do define unit of memory capacity? As an example explain 1 GB (Giga Byte) of memory?

In decimal systems :
1GB = 10^9 bytes = 8 X 1 000 000 000 = 8 000 000 000 bits

Some other associated terms of measurements:
1GB = 1024 MB (Mega Byte)
1MB = 1024 KB (Kilo Byte)
1KB = 1024 B (Bytes)
1B = 8 Bits

Total capacity of 1 GB in bits = 1024 X 1024 X 1024 X 8 bits = 8589934592 bits
Tip to memorize :- This memory is a permanent storage and all your music, pictures, games, applications etc are stored in this memory.
SD can go upto max 2 GB (Giga Bytes)
SDHC can go upto max 32 GB.

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