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Topics covered in
Long Term Evolution a 4G technology
Evolved Packet Core (EPC) system architecture for all IP.
LTE is all-
IP advanced core architecture proposed in release 8 of 3GPP to only process packets. The core is named as
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Mobility Management Entity (MME).
During hand over a UE is switched from source eNodeB to a target eNodeB. The reason of handover is related to mobility of the UE across the cell boundary. Example is of a UE in a moving vehicle.
Serving System (S) Architecture (A) Evolution (E) Gateway
Serving Gateway SGW
SGW is responsible for handovers with neighboring eNodeB’s.
Packet Data Network (PDN)
PGW is responsible to act as an anchor of mobility between 3GPP and non-
What is LTE? Key driving factors behind 4G technology
LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a fourth generation (4G) standard for broadband mobile technology. This standard is developed to meet long term future requirements of higher data rates, lower latency, better cell coverage and seamless handover.
LTE Data rates and comparison with 3G rates.
All IP is a unified network core for wireless operators to handle both voice and data. If the approach of unified core of all IP is adopted across majority of carriers globally, then mobility will become seamless.
Difference between air, radio and core network.
Enhanced Packet Data Gateway (ePDG)
ePDG is the part of SAE which interfaces with non-
trusted 3GPP IP systems. It acts as a secure termination node for IPsec tunnels established with UE.
UMTS LTE Interfaces in details
Multiple antenna techniques
DL MIMO frame format 2x2
UL MIMO frame format 2x2
Adaptive antenna systems
Antenna diversity -
Hardware components of a smart-
CPU or processor of a cell phone.
Operating System or simply O/S
RAM, a type of memory
Applications for direct user interface.
PIXELS for resolution of
RTL code examples
end chip design.
Parity Generation and error checking
Binary multiplier circuit.
Digital fundamentals -
RTL coding guidelines.
CAR of 4G
LTE vs. CDMA
LTE or WiMax
and comparison with S1
LTE Access technologies like -
FDD, TDD, OFDMA and SC-
4G LTE differences in FDD and TDD modes.
LTE Physical layer and generic frame structure.
LTE PHY layer characteristics
LTE alternate frame structure.
LTE cells, network
. UMTS LTE
cell identities and synchronization signals (primary and secondary)
UMTS LTE Reference Signals. DMRS pilot demodulation
LTE vs. CDMA
LTE vs. WiMax