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Cache Memory Block Diagram
Associative Cache Memory hardware sub-blocks.
We have already discussed Cache line and TAG memory in previous section. To implement an efficient hardware cache for processor to work efficiently we will need an architecture which will compare the requested address with all the locations in available cache. This architecture will require some added flags. We will discuss those flags next.  
Now lets discuss some flags that goes along Associative cache implementation.
Memory content Valid Flag or simply Valid: Whenever a valid block of data is present in Cache line the corresponding valid flag is set to 1. This tells the hardware that valid data is available in the cache.
Block Address Match Flag or simply ‘Match’: As discussed for Associative cache the address requested from processor consists of Tag and OFFSET fields. The TAG field is matched with all the available address’s in Tag memory. If there is a match then the value in Match flag gets set to ‘1’.  
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Cache Memory
Control
Tag Memory
Interview Questions.
Main, FPGA, Digital Basics