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ALU - Arithmetic and Logical Unit

Interview Questions. Main, FPGA, Digital Fundamentals

ALU: Arithmetic Logical Unit

Most generic computer system is composed of a unit to do arithmetic, logical and shift micro-operations commonly know as ALU. Detailed discussion on computer ALU is discussed below.

Most generic computer system is composed of a unit to do arithmetic, logical and shift micro-

ALU is designed to compute arithmetic computations on the binary numbers. The primary format in today’s ALU is two’s complement (or 2’s complement.). The other possibilities are to use one’s complement or signed-magnitude computations.

Carry

Control

Flag

Result

Overflow

ALU Block Diagram

CPU Block Diagram

Fundamental mode of operation of ALU is dependent on the Control input. The Timing and Control Unit of CPU requests the Aritmetic operations to be performed on Inputs A and B .

Most common ALU operations are listed below.

Bitwise operations: AND, OR, NOT, XOR here.

Decimal Aritmetic operations - ADD, SUB, MUL and DIV.

Shift Micro-operations. The output of CPU includes Result of the digital operation, overflow indication and various flags.

Bitwise operations: AND, OR, NOT, XOR here.

Decimal Aritmetic operations -

The inputs are generally loaded from registers or memory. Similarly, results are also stored into registers or memory. The entire operation of loading the inputs, controlling the operation and storing the results are managed by the external timing and control unit.

Resources

Verilog RTL code examples for front-end chip design.

Digital Design Topics

Half-adder , full-adder ,

Adder-sub tractor

Stack Organization - LIFO, RPN. Parity Generation and error checking. Binary multiplier circuit. CMOS introduction. Digital fundamentals - RTL coding guidelines. ICG cell, Assertions, levels. Chandle

Pipeline vs. Parallel processing.

Verilog RTL code examples for front-

Half-

Adder-

Stack Organization -

Pipeline vs. Parallel processing.

Digital Logic fundamentals topics @ fcd

Binary number discussion, 1 and 2 complement discussion, Binary arithmetic, Signed Magnitude, overflow, examples, Gray coding, Binary coded digital (BCD) coding,

Digital logic gates basic (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) and derived (NAND, NOR and XNOR). Discussion of Boolean Algebra with examples, Duality Principle, Huntington Postulates, Theorems of Boolean Algebra - discussion with examples, Boolean Functions, Canonical and Standard Forms, Sum of Minterms, Product of Maxterms or Canonical Forms, Karnaugh map or K-map discussion , Prime Implican t

Binary number discussion, 1 and 2 complement discussion, Binary arithmetic, Signed Magnitude, overflow, examples, Gray coding, Binary coded digital (BCD) coding,

Digital logic gates basic (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) and derived (NAND, NOR and XNOR). Discussion of Boolean Algebra with examples, Duality Principle, Huntington Postulates, Theorems of Boolean Algebra -

Arithmetic, logical and shift microoperations.

Binary to Gray code conversion

Readmemh, Readmemb. Random numbers

Memory Implementation - sync Ram and Testbench

Binary to Gray code conversion

Readmemh, Readmemb. Random numbers

Memory Implementation -