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Representation of Boolean functions in Canonical and Standard Forms:

Minterm or a standard product: Minterms are standard product terms obtained by AND operations on ‘n’ variables under discussion.

Suppose n = 2 (x and y)

and, we know ‘0’ represents complements i.e. x’ and y’

so, we have x, y, x’ and y’

Therefore, Minterms combinations are shown below.

Maxterm or standard sum: Maxterms are standard sum terms obtained by OR operation of ‘n’ variables and their complements.

Suppose n = 2 (x and y)

and, we know ‘0’ represents complements i.e. x’ and y’

so, we have x, y, x’ and y’

Generally, Maxterms are represented as complements of Minterms.

Therefore, Maxterm combinations are shown below.

x

y

Minterms

0

0

x’y’

0

1

x’y

1

0

xy’

1

1

xy

x

y

Minterms

Maxterms = (Minterms)’

0

0

x’y’

x + y

0

1

x’y

x + y’

1

0

xy’

x’ + y

1

1

xy

x’ + y’

LTE - Long Term Evolution topics from here

Interview Questions. Main, FPGA, Digital basics

Introduction to Verilog RTL

Verilog Operators.

Initial Statements in verilog.

Clock and Reset generation.

Blocking vs. Non-blocking Statements.

Conditional Statements & ‘always’ block.

Counter Implementation.

File Operations -

$fopen, $fclose, $fdisplay, $fscanf

Read binary or hex format files

$readmemh, $readmemb.

FOR Loop use in verilog code example

Verilog Operators.

Initial Statements in verilog.

Clock and Reset generation.

Blocking vs. Non-

Conditional Statements & ‘always’ block.

Counter Implementation.

File Operations -

$fopen, $fclose, $fdisplay, $fscanf

Read binary or hex format files

$readmemh, $readmemb.

FOR Loop use in verilog code example

Other Topics

Arithmetic, logical and shift microoperations.

Binary to Gray code conversion

Readmemh, Readmemb. Random numbers

Memory Implementation - sync Ram and

Binary to Gray code conversion

Readmemh, Readmemb. Random numbers

Memory Implementation -