Binary numbers addition is straight forward process while binary subtractions involve three fundamentals. Discuss those in details with formula and examples.
Binary Subtraction:
Suppose, M is Minuend and N is subtrahend
Then, M – N can be done based on three steps discussed next:
Step 1: Take 2’s complement of N and add it to M.
M – N = M + (2^n – N)
Step 2: If M is greater than or equal to N then end carry is discarded from the result.
M –N = M + (2^n – N) – 2^n
Step 3: If M is less than N then take 2’s complement of the result and append negative
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So binary subtraction formula , M
Example 1 : Perform binary subtraction of two binary numbers M = 10101010 and N = 00111000
Example 2 : Perform binary subtraction of two binary numbers N = 10101010 and M = 00111000
Binary subtraction Discussion
M – N
Discard end carry from the subtraction
Answer. Binary subtraction of M and N = 01110010
10101010 10101010

M – N
00111000 00111000

Result = 10001110
No end carry in result
2’s complement of result = 01110010
Answer. Binary subtraction of M and N = 
1 01110010
End carry
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